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by Bernard Vatant, Mondeca


An Ghaeilge


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Irish (Gaeilge), also known as Irish Gaelic or Gaelic, is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people. Irish is now spoken as a first language by a minority of Irish people, as well as being a second language of a larger proportion of the population. Irish enjoys constitutional status as the national and first official language of the Republic of Ireland. It is an official language of the European Union and an officially recognised minority language in Northern Ireland. Irish was the predominant language of the Irish people for most of their recorded history, and they brought their Gaelic speech with them to other countries, notably Scotland and the Isle of Man, where it gave rise to Scottish Gaelic and Manx. It has the oldest vernacular literature in Western Europe. In the Elizabethan era the Gaelic language was viewed as something barbarian and as a threat to all things English in Ireland. Consequently, it began to decline under English and British rule after the seventeenth century. The nineteenth century saw a dramatic decrease in the number of speakers especially after the Great Famine of 1845–1852 (where Ireland lost 20–25% of its population either to emigration or death). Irish-speaking areas were especially hit hard. By the end of British rule, the language was spoken by less than 15% of the national population. Since then, Irish speakers have been in the minority except in areas collectively known as the Gaeltacht. Ongoing efforts have been made to preserve, promote and revive the language, particularly the Gaelic Revival. Significantly the language hung on in at least one area on the east coast of Ireland — far away from the usual west coast Gaeltacht areas — this was in the area of 'Oirghialla' — the remnant of a vast Gaelic territory that once encompassed Down, Armagh, Tyrone, Meath and Louth — but now just the few parishes of Mullaghbane (An Mullach Bán), Dromintee (Droim an Tí) and Killeavy (Cill Shléibhe) in South Armagh, and the contiguous area of Omeath (Ó Méith) in County Louth. The language was spoken in this area up to the 1920s and the last native speakers died in the 1950s. Around the turn of the 20th century, estimates of native speakers ranged from 20,000 to 80,000 people. In the 2006 census for the Republic, 85,000 people reported using Irish as a daily language outside of the education system, and 1.2 million reported using it at least occasionally in or out of school. In the 2011 Census, these numbers had increased to 94,000 and 1.3 million, respectively. There are also thousands of Irish speakers in Northern Ireland, and viable communities of native speakers in the United States and Canada. Historically the island of Newfoundland had a dialect of Irish Gaelic, called Newfoundland Irish.
Source : DBpedia

Names (more)

[af] Iers
[am] አይሪሽ
[ar] الأيرلندية
[an] Idioma irlandés
[az] İrland dili
[be] Ірландская мова
[bn] আইরিশ ভাষা
[bs] Irski jezik
[br] Iwerzhoneg
[bg] Ирландски език
[ca] Gaèlic irlandès
[cs] Irština
[ce] Irlandhoyn mott
[cv] Ирланд чĕлхи
[kw] Wordhonek
[cy] Gwyddeleg
[da] Irsk
[de] Irisch
[dz] ཨཱའི་རིཤ་ཁ
[el] Ιρλανδικά
[en] Irish language
[eo] Irlanda lingvo
[et] Iiri keel
[eu] Irlandako gaelera
[ee] irelanɖgbe
[fo] Írskt mál
[fa] آیرلندی
[fi] Iiri
[fr] Irlandais
[fy] Iersk
[gd] Gàidhlig na h-Èireann
[ga] An Ghaeilge
[gl] Lingua irlandesa
[gv] Yernish
[gu] આઇરિશ
[ha] Dan Ailan
[sh] Irski jezik
[he] אירית
[hi] आयरिश भाषा
[hr] Irski jezik
[hu] Ír nyelv
[hy] Իռլանդերեն
[io] Gaelana linguo
[ia] Lingua irlandese
[id] Bahasa Irlandia
[is] Írska
[it] Lingua irlandese
[ja] アイルランド語
[kl] irlandimiutut
[kn] ಐರಿಷ್
[ks] اَیرِش
[ka] ირლანდიური ენა
[kk] Ирланд тілі
[km] អៀរឡង់
[rw] Ikirilandi
[ky] ирландча
[kv] Ирландса кыв
[ko] 아일랜드어
[ku] Zimanê îrlandî
[lo] ໄອຣິສ
[la] Lingua Hibernica
[lv] Īru valoda
[li] Iers
[lt] Airių kalba
[ml] ഐറിഷ്
[mr] आयरिश भाषा
[mk] Ирски јазик
[mt] Irlandiż
[my] အိုင်းရစ်
[ne] आइरिश
[nl] Iers
[nn] Irsk språk
[nb] irsk
[no] Irsk
[oc] Irlandés
[or] ଇରିସ୍
[om] Afaan Ayirishii
[os] Ирландиаг æвзаг
[pl] Język irlandzki
[pt] Língua irlandesa
[ps] ائيرلېنډي
[qu] Ilanda simi
[rm] Lingua irlandaisa
[ro] Limba irlandeză
[ru] Ирландский язык
[si] අයිරිෂ්
[sk] Írčina
[sl] Irska gelščina
[se] Iirragiella
[so] Ayrish
[st] Se-irish
[es] Idioma irlandés
[sq] Gjuha irlandeze
[sc] Gaelicu Irlandiesu
[sr] Ирски језик
[sv] Iriska
[ta] ஐரிய மொழி
[tt] Ирланд теле
[te] ఐరిష్
[tg] Забони ирландӣ
[tl] Wikang Irlandes
[th] ไอริช
[ti] አይሪሽ
[to] lea fakaʻaelani
[tn] Irish
[tr] İrlandaca
[ug] ئرېلاندىيە تىلى
[uk] Ірландська мова
[ur] آئیرِش
[vi] Tiếng Ai-len
[xh] Isi-Irish
[yi] איריש
[yo] Irishi
[zh] 愛爾蘭語
[zu] isi-Irish

Language type : Living

Official language : Ireland,

Language resources for Irish

Open Languages Archives

GEMET multilingual thesaurus in Irish

Irish Wikipedia
Irish Wiktionary
Wiktionary - Category:Irish language [en]
Wiktionnaire - Catégorie:gaélique irlandais [fr]

Freelang Dictionary [en]
Dictionnaire Freelang [fr]
Omniglot encyclopedia [en]
Lexilogos Dictionaries [en]
Dictionnaires Lexilogos [fr]
Dictionnaires Lexicool [fr]

Technical notes

This page is providing structured data for the language Irish.
Following BCP 47 the recommended tag for this language is ga.

This page is marked up using RDFa,, and other linked open vocabularies. The raw RDF data can be extracted using the W3C RDFa Distiller.

Freebase search uses the Freebase API, based on ISO 639-3 codes shared by Freebase language records.

ISO 639 Codes

ISO 639-1 : ga
ISO 639-2B : gle
ISO 639-2T : gle
ISO 639-3 : gle

Linked Data URIs

More URIs at


Authority documentation for ISO 639 identifier: gle

Freebase ISO 639-3 : gle Country Information

Publications Office of the European Union
Metadata Registry : Countries and Languages